A new species of the genus Totoaba (family Sciaenidae) based upon otoliths from the late early Miocene marine upper Olcese Sand, Kern County, southern San Joaquin Valley, California is described. This is the first fossil occurrence for the genus, and it is hypothesized that Totoaba evolved entirely in the eastern Pacific realm. Within the upper Olcese Sand, this species represents but one component of a complex sciaenid fauna, which could provide insight into the evolution and distribution of the family Sciaenidae. An ontogenetic series of this species is defined, and ontogenetic changes in its otoliths are discussed.
Huddleston, Richard W. and Takeuchi, Gary T.
"First Fossil Record of Totoaba Villamar 1980 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) Based upon Early Miocene Otoliths from California with Comments on the Ontogeny of the Saccular Otolith,"
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences:
Available at: http://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol106/iss1/1