Calcanea of Members of the Canidae
The calcanea of 25 species (14 genera) of canids are described and compared. All canids have a dual anterior surface which articulates proximally with the astragulus and distally with the scaphoid. Most canid calcanea are similar with those of Speothos, Nyctereutes, Atelocynus, and Chrysocyon being the most distinctive. Calcanea of Cains dingo exhibit the most variability. Those of Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes fulva are indistinguishable and those of Canis nlger are intermediate to those of Canis lalrans and Canis lupus.
Stains, Howard J.
"Calcanea of Members of the Canidae,"
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences:
Available at: http://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol74/iss3/10