Title

Martin, Malcolm, Mandela, and Biko:Resistance to Modern Day Slaveryand Philosophies for Black Liberation

Authors

Nathan Baptiste

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2003

Abstract

Stephen Biko, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X were four revolutionary leaders who emerged to transform the world midway through the 20th century. While their methods of fighting for liberation differed as much as their individual circumstances, Biko, Mandela, King, and X were all driven by their undeniable will for justice and moral action and their courage to stand up and fight directly against life-threatening violence in undying commitment to their people. King, Malcolm, Biko and Mandela shared the common drive to free their people from modern day slavery by complimentary means of direct resistance and self-empowerment philosophies for Black liberation. In the U.S., Malcolm X sparked the dormant anger in his brothers and sisters to stand up and command immediate justice on equal terms while King sparked the loving compassion of his audience to stand up for the morality of equal rights. Similarly in South Africa, Biko and Mandela complimented each other by their different methods of helping their people. Like Malcolm, Biko infused the notion of self-help for Black people to uplift and provide for themselves psychologically, socially, and economically. Mandela, on the other hand, forced more external change by rallying political resistance activism, conducting diplomatic negotiations, and consolidating support in international relations. Martin and Mandela offered greater attention to political negotiation and interracial collaboration while Malcolm and Biko offered greater emphasis on self-empowerment through Black pride and independence. Link to PowerPoint? presentation

Advisor

M. Reddy

Department

politics

Support

Support provided by:The Paul K. and Evalyn E. Cook Richter Trust

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