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dc.contributorWe thank Will and Ziggy Goddard for their expert assistance in the field, Jackie Sones and Eric Sanford of the Bodega Marine Laboratory for sharing their observations and knowledge of the intertidal fauna of Bodega Head and Sonoma County, and David Anderson of the National Park Service and Richard Emlet of the University of Oregon for sharing their respective observations of Okenia rosacea in northern California and southern Oregon. We also thank Kate Wayne, James Treneman and Dana Garves for assisting us at Cape Arago, Emily Anthony for her assistance in southern Oregon, Craig Cornu and Anne Donnelly for their hospitality in Coos Bay, and Karin Fletcher for her persistence in helping obtain the dates of observation of southern nudibranchs pictured in Lamb and Hanby (2005). BG thanks Allison Gong and Josh Hallas for support and assistance in the field. We also thank Liz Kools for her assistance at CAS, Gary McDonald for sharing his field data and for permission to use two of his images, and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments which improved the manuscript. Finally, we would like to acknowledge Robin and Marisa Agarwal, Spencer Dybdahl-Riffle, Cassidy Grattan, Matt Knoth, Donna Pomeroy, and Ken-ichi Ueda. Their dedicated, ongoing observations of nudibranchs in California have added significantly to our knowledge of the shifting distributions of nudibranchs in the region.
dc.contributor.authorGoddard, Jeffrey HR
dc.contributor.authorTreneman, Nancy
dc.contributor.authorPence, William E.
dc.contributor.authorMason, Douglas E.
dc.contributor.authorDobry, Phillip M.
dc.contributor.authorGreen, Brenna
dc.contributor.authorHoover, Craig
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-03T11:20:58Z
dc.date.available2020-09-03T11:20:58Z
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholar.oxy.edu/handle/20.500.12711/10002
dc.description.abstractAbstract.—The Northeast Pacific Ocean was anomalously warm in 2014, despite ENSO-neutral conditions in the tropical Pacific. We documented northern range shifts associated with this anomaly for 30 species of nudibranchs and other shallow-water, benthic heterobranch gastropods from southern California to southern Oregon. Nine of these (Placida cremoniana, Trapania velox, Doriopsilla fulva, Janolus anulatus, J. barbarensis, Flabellina cooperi, Anteaeolidiella chromosoma, A. oliviae, and Noumeaella rubrofasciata) were recorded from new northernmost localities, while the remainder were found at or near northern range limits established mainly during past El Niño events. All 30 species have planktotrophic larval development, and six were observed spawning at northern localities, increasing the likelihood that their ranges will continue to shift poleward as the strong 2015-16 El Niño develops. Notable among these was Okenia rosacea, usually found south of San Francisco and last observed in Oregon as a single specimen found during the 1997-98 El Niño. In 2015 this bright pink nudibranch reached high densities and was observed spawning throughout northern California and into southern Oregon. Okenia rosacea is therefore poised to exploit abundant prey resources previously out of its reach in northern Oregon and Washington. Our results not only demonstrate a striking biological response to the 2014 warm anomaly in the North Pacific Ocean, but also support early physical indications of a larger regional climate shift, one reinforced by long-term global warming. Combined with historical data, these results highlight how shallow-water nudibranchs, with their planktotrophic larvae, short life cycles, conspicuous coloration, and accessibility are excellent biological indicators of ocean climate in the region.
dc.subjectNudibranchia
dc.subjectGastropoda
dc.subjectsea slugs
dc.subjectbenthos
dc.subjectdistribution
dc.subjectrange shifts
dc.subjectlarval transport
dc.subjectPacific Ocean
dc.subjectcoastal
dc.subjectNorth America
dc.subjectENSO
dc.subjectEl Niño
dc.subjectclimate-change ecology
dc.titleNudibranch Range Shifts associated with the 2014 Warm Anomaly in the Northeast Pacific
dc.title.alternativeNudibranch Range Shifts in Northeast Pacific
dc.typearticle
dc.abstract.formatonep
dc.source.beginpage15
dc.source.issuescas/vol115/iss1
dc.source.issue1
dc.identifier.legacyhttps://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol115/iss1/2
dc.source.reviewer_letterHASH(0x1380ab48), HASH(0x16ca47b8), HASH(0x40f73d88)
dc.source.endpage40
dc.source.peer_reviewedTRUE
dc.source.statuspublished
dc.source.volume115
dc.source.journaltitleScas: Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences


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