Eight species of Lithodidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) are reported from deep water off Peru. Two are described as new and a third is illustrated for the first time. The other five species, which were briefly cited from Peruvian waters (del Solar, 1972), are discussed in more detail. Attention is drawn to morphological changes that take place with growth in family Lithodidae. Distribution of the tropical component of the west American lilhodids is discussed.