The pupfishes (genus Cyprinodon) referable to the C. eximius complex comprise seven species that are restricted to, or had their origin in, the Chihuahuan Desert region of Mexico and adjacent parts of Texas and New Mexico. Four are described as new; the remainder are C. eximius, C. atrorus, and C. latifasciatus. Most are of restricted distribution; one is extinct and another may be. Keys, diagnoses, and ranges are given for each species and all are illustrated. The distinctive morphometric characters of the new species are given. Life colors and color patterns are important in distinguishing species.