Blubber progesterone levels were measured in biopsy samples and used to predict the pregnancy status of 507 female common dolphins (204 long-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus capensis, and 303 short-beaked common dolphins, D. delphis). Samples were collected in the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific between central California, USA and the southern end of Baja California, Mexico. The percentage of females pregnant was similar between the two species: 22.1% (n = 45) of D. capensis and 28.1% (n = 85) of D. delphis. For both species we found strong geographic patterns in pregnancy, suggesting that some areas were more conducive for pregnant females. A sizable drop in percent pregnant from early (38.8%, n = 133) to late (25.3%, n = 91) autumn was found in D. delphis but not in D. capensis. The potential for sample selectivity was examined via biopsies collected either from a large research ship or from a small, rigid-hull inflatable boat (RHIB) launched from the larger ship. An analysis of “Tandem Biopsy Sampling”, replicate biopsy effort on the same schools from each vessel/platform, yielded little evidence that disproportionately more pregnant female common dolphins were biopsied from one platform versus the other. This result plus an analysis of pregnancy status relative to the duration of biopsy operations failed to uncover strong evidence of unaccounted sampling bias with respect to pregnancy state. In total, these results demonstrate the utility of blubber progesterone concentrations to assess pregnancy status in free-ranging cetaceans and they highlight potential factors associated with population-level variation in dolphin pregnancy rates.