A dual legacy of anarchism and traditionalism in Spain has challenged women working throughout the last century to develop a feminist consciousness. The anarchist period opened the eyes of many women and allowed them to speak freely through 'preparation' or education. However, during the decades following the anarchist period, Franco emphasized Spain's traditional patriarchal system of authority. Contemporary women writers overcame this dilemma by adopting anarchist strategies for consciousness raising as well as by recognizing Spain's traditional patriarchy. Writers such as Rosa Montero use literature to express their own awareness of themselves and to influence the development of a feminist consciousness in others. Spanish women have thus revived the development of a feminist consciousness from the anarchist period and now address the complexity of being a woman in Post-Franco Spain.