Butterflies of California
The various races and varieties of the Clodius Parnassian occurring in the state were dealt with in our last paper. There remain for consideration several forms of the Smintheus Parnassian before we pass on to the next family. Typical Smintheus does not occur in California, but one or possibly two well defined varieties, and one aberration may safely be included in our list. The races of smintheus as a whole may be distinguished from clodius by the fact that the wings are less transparent, particularly in the males. There is also a tendency for red spots to occur in the primaries, more markedly in the females.
Comstock, John A.
"Butterflies of California,"
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences:
Available at: https://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol22/iss2/6