The Cranial Osteology of Amphistichus argenteus (Pisces: Embiotocidae)
The cranial and branchial skeleton of Amphistichus argenteus, a member of the embiotocid subfamily Amphistichinae, is described here for the first time and compared to that of Damalichthys vacca, a member of the second embiotocid subfamily, the Embiotocinae. In A. argenteus the circumorbital ring is composed of seven bones, and four pairs of pharyngobranchials are present; whereas in D. vacca, the circumorbital ring is composed of six elements and the fourth pair of pharyngobranchials is absent. The reduction in numbers of bony elements is considered to be a more derived condition and. based on this information, the Amphistichinae are here considered more primitive than the Embiotocinae.
Morris, Steven L. and Gaudin, Anthonty J.
"The Cranial Osteology of Amphistichus argenteus (Pisces: Embiotocidae),"
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences:
Available at: https://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol75/iss1/8