Investigations of Red Tides Along the Southern California Coast
Prior to 1976 red tides of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra usually developed during the fall of the year. From 1976 until 1994 there was an hiatus of red tide blooms. In the winter of 1995 an extensive red tide, dominated by L. polyedra, developed along the entire Southern California Bight. This new pattern of winter and spring red tides continued through 1996 and 1997. In ad- dition, a localized red tide persisted at the Los Angeles River mouth from winter through summer. During post-bloom conditions, L. polyedra cells were observed erupting from their cell walls, taking on a naked amoeboid form.
Gregorio, Dominic E. and Pieper, Richard E.
"Investigations of Red Tides Along the Southern California Coast,"
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences:
Available at: https://scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol99/iss3/4